Tag Archives: space colonies

Tweets from Space

Check out an article from Marotta Space Research.  It will be posted shortly at Space Safety Magazine.

Tweets from the High Frontier

Space.  It’s vast.  It’s majestic.  It’s so big it defies comprehension and, occasionally, description. But, what if space were full of people?  People with smartphones?  What if there were communities teeming with people living, working and playing up there?  They’d probably have lots to say about their experiences in orbit amongst the space colonies scattered across the high frontier.

Fair reader, you’re in luck.  I have traveled to the future and obtained a representative sample of tweets from space.  What follows are some examples of what humans might say about their lives in future space settlements:

Can’t believe how big this place is @IslandThree! There are actually rain clouds in here! And I can’t see down to the other side! #impressed

image credit: Ed Sweet

Space settlements will be big – much bigger than contemporary ‘tin-can’ space stations like ISS or Tiangong-1.  The latest space settlement design, Kalpana One, envisions a cylinder 250 meters in diameter and 325 meters long – about the size of some of the largest cruise ships today.  Kalpana One can accommodate 3,000 people living in a business park-like setting.  This is a small space settlement – some of the larger designs are miles long and can host hundreds of thousands of people along with plenty of space for forests, farms, lakes and rivers.  All of these structures can be built in space using the same kinds of proven techniques that for decades have been used to construct massive supertankers in shipyards here on Earth.  The challenge is getting the labor and raw materials to start the first community.  Perhaps we should check the help-wanted ads…

Wanted: Agile people with strong upper bodies for lucrative work. Personalized spacesuit included. Join the elite asteroid miners today! #PR-HR


Immediate opening: 3D printer technician, must have experience with molten metals in a hazardous environment. Good pay, great views #Spiderfab-HR

The primary reason existing space stations are so small is that they are built on Earth and launched into space on rockets.  And rockets are expensive – it costs over $4,000 to launch one kilogram into space on the cheapest rocket available today.  But future space settlements will not be built on Earth and launched into space.  In-situ raw materials – collected primarily from asteroids – will be refined and shaped into the beams, panels, and windows that will form the settlement.  Just like sailing ships carried shovels and axes to the New World (not log cabins and farm silos), rockets will be used to carry the tools that will build settlements – not the settlements themselves.

Furthermore, the human resources paradigm of space travel is going to change. Currently, thousands of support personnel on Earth work to launch a handful of people into space.  That is set to change as new launch companies field rockets that require only a handful of support staff.  Better rockets and lower labor costs mean rockets can launch more frequently which will make them both safer and cheaper. Soon, a minority of people on Earth will work to support thousands of people living, working and playing in space.  And all those people will need to eat.  Are you getting hungry? Let’s see what’s on the menu in orbit…

For all you space cadet foodies: tried the @Bernal bioreactor algae pudding – gooey, weird and sweet. #spacecuisine


@IslandThree’s solar-roasted tilapia is “flaky, light and delicious” says @SnootyChef. Try the local veggies too! #spacecuisine

Many people enjoy the novelty of freeze-dried, packaged ‘space food’ (remember “astronaut ice cream” when you were kid on those trips to the museum?) but few people would want to eat that for the rest of their lives.  Luckily, space settlements will have the capability to grow fresh food.  In fact, space settlements will be required to grow much of their own food because of the size of their populations and the exorbitant cost to ship food up from Earth.  The unusual space environment and unique architecture of space colonies will allow for extremely productive agriculture.  First, the sun shines all day in space allowing for major energy inputs into production. Second, irrigation, fertilization, sowing and harvesting will be tightly controlled and integrated into the architecture of the settlement.  Third, pests, weather and other Earth-bound agricultural problems will not afflict farming in space.  All of these factors will combine to supercharge food and fiber production in space settlements.

So, we’ve arrived, we’ve got a good job and we’ve got plenty of food to eat.  But what is there to do for fun in space?  Contemporary space tourism companies are betting that people will pay millions of dollars to simply look out the window at Earth and spin around in zero-gravity for a week.  While that may appeal to some, most may quickly bore of it and start looking for more.  Recreation in a space settlement will offer many more options than what current space tourism provides.  Spherical pools floating in mid-air, piloting an actual starfighter, and literally flying like a bird are just a few of the possibilities….

Exclusively @IslandThree Resort: come fly a REAL X-Wing in ACTUAL space! Shoot drones and complete the obstacle course. Earn your Rebel wings! #RogueSquadron

Dive into the water, stroke stroke stroke then I shoot out the other side! Spherical pools @Bernal resort are crazy! #nextOlympicsport ?


image credit: David A. Hardy
image credit: David A. Hardy

That was fun but space settlements can serve a higher purpose than merely offering sustenance or recreation.  Throughout history there are numerous instances of people with similar religious or philosophical leanings banding together to form communities where they can pursue their interests without interference.  Space settlements offer the ultimate refuge for people seeking peace and  isolation.

Want to live in harmony with like-minded individuals? Do you feel a (much) higher calling? Come join us in the first temple in orbit! #L5Mormons

In fact, a recent film made the exact same conclusion (albeit in a wholly negative light) that space settlements can act as enclaves for like-minded individuals.

Human nature being what it is, it is unlikely that space settlement will be as innocuous, high-minded and fun as depicted in the selection of tweets above.  But the purpose of space settlement should not be to create utopias in the sky.  While they can expand the resource base of Earth and provide a higher standard of living for all who occupy them, space settlements will not by themselves eliminate war, greed, stupidity or laziness.  Rather, the purpose of space settlement is to expand the stage upon which the human drama plays out.  Space settlements will be little Earths full of love, hate, sadness and joy.  While the food there may be better and the recreation might be different, space settlements, at the end of the day, will be like little Earths: familiar and cozy.


Refinery is being…refined

Working hard on the specs for Refinery and making some interesting discoveries. Happily, the design will be simplified and certain manufacturing processes – namely liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen production – will be moved to Uptown.  Here is a sneak preview of Refinery 2.0:

GEOindustrial 12.11.13 v2 liteLarger solar ovens, more power production, smaller volume. Stay tuned.

Basic specifications for Uptown

The following post describes the basic specifications of the “Uptown” component of the next generation of space stations.

12.1.13 Final Version NGSSUptown:

  • is a ring 148 meters in diameter and 47.8 meters in depth (from “zero-gee viewing window” to tip of rear-most radiator panel).
  • rotates at two revolutions per minute, generating one-third Earth gravity and 15.5 meters/sec (approximately 34mph) angular velocity along the rim.
  • has a total internal pressurized volume of 18,360 cubic meters.
  • generates 2.2 megawatts of baseline electrical power.
  • can accomodate 100 people in 11 residence quarters:
    • 4 “tourist” quarters with a capacity for 4 tourists each, for a total of 16 people.
    • 7 “non-tourist” quarters with a capacity of 12 non-tourists each, for a total of 84 people.
  • provides 4,290 cubic meters of pressurized volume available for private non-residential use and 10,440 cubic meters of shared non-residential pressurized volume.
  • provides 1,200 cubic meters of shared zero-gee pressurized volume, including a 25 meter wide viewing window at the center of the station.
  • has a ‘dry’ or ‘vacant’ mass of 2,548,000 kilograms. ‘Vacant mass’ is the mass of the station not counting internal furnishings and non life-support related equipment and materials.
  • is estimated to cost $60,000,000,000 to build, not including launch costs.
  • will cost $6,489,756,000 to launch to low earth orbit, assuming a launch cost of $2,547 per kilogram – the proposed cost-per-kilogram to orbit for the Falcon Heavy.
  • will require at least 620,500 kilograms of water per year for life support purposes. Assuming 90% recycling (ISS currently recycles 93%), 62,050 kg of water per year required for life support.

Final Color Version NGSS

  • is composed of:
    • 28 BA330-like modules (green), each 9.5 meters in length and 6.7 meters in diameter and each with an internal pressurized volume of 330 cubic meters. Each masses 20,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 24 custom-made ‘corridor’ modules (pink), each 19.3179 meters in length on the exterior side and 5 meters in width on the rimward side, each with a ‘foyer’ 6.7 meters long and 2 meters in width on the rimward side. Internal                 pressurized volume for each corridor is 330 cubic meters. Each masses 30,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $200 million.

Final Color Version Shadowside NGSS

    • 24 ‘spine’ trusses (blue), each 18.9274 meters in length on the rimward facing side. Unpressurized but very high strength. ‘Corridor’ segments are connected to this spine, as well as the support trusses for the power plants and radiators. It is designed to transmit rotational forces while the station is under construction or being upgraded. Each masses 10,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 88 Suncatcher-like concentrating solar power plants (yellow) each occupying a volume 6.9401 meters in diameter and 5 meters in depth. The Suncatchers will be parabolic, unlike the cylindrical shape shown in the graphic (cylinders are easier to sketch).  Each Suncatcher will generate 25 KW baseline power for a total of 2,200 KW produced while the station is facing the Sun.  This energy will charge batteries distributed throughout the corridor and BA330s modules for use when the station is transiting the nightside of the Earth. Each Suncatcher masses 1,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 90 radiators (brown), each 125 square meters in size, each able to dissipate 149 KW of energy for a total dissipation capacity of 13,140 KW. Each masses 10,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
Unit Mass (kg) per unit Cost ($millions) per unit # of units total mass (kg) total cost of materials ($millions)
“BA330” 20,000 100 28 560,000 2800
“Corridor” 30,000 200 24 720,000 4800
“Spine truss” 10,000 100 24 240,000 2400
“Power plant” 1,000 100 88 88,000 8800
“Radiator” 10,000 100 90 900,000 9000
“Zero gee” 40,000 200 1 40,000 200
Total 2,548,000 28000
Note: All figures are estimates. Materials cost is more than doubled to $60B to account for R&D and operations costs.

Get the model on Sketchup and check it out for yourself.  Specs on Refinery are coming soon!

The Next Generation of Space Stations: A Conceptual Design

As described in previous posts, Marotta Space Research has created a conceptual design for the next generation of space stations.  This conceptual design achieves the strategic goals necessary to bridge the gap between the current crop of space stations and what is needed to build full-fledged space settlements.

The Answer Is...Additional considerations were made when crafting this design:

  • Existing technologies were used to the greatest extent possible.  In fact, the station is essentially a larger and unique configuration of existing technology that will be commercially available in the next ten years (e.g. BA330 modules) or is currently available but needs to be reverse engineered for use in orbit (e.g. Suncatcher CSP power plants).
  • The station is actually two stations:
    • a smaller teleoperated station in geosynchronous orbit that converts in-situ raw materials into water, oxygen, hydrogen, and iron structural components.  This part of the station is tentatively called “Refinery.”
    • a much larger station in low to medium earth orbit hosting the inhabited portions tentatively called “Uptown.”

Refinery requires the constant sunlight of geosynchronous orbit in order to most efficiently convert in-situ materials into finished products.  However, Uptown must be located in a lower orbit close to the customer base and markets of Earth in order to maximize its economic output.  Therefore, separating Refinery from Uptown in different orbits achieves the strategic goals of maximizing both economic output and manufacturing productivity.

NGSS answer graphic

A final note: this is a concept.  This is not a final design.  Much of the work here is speculative and represents an extremely ambitious proposal.  In fact, the entire purpose of this series of blog posts is not to create a final space station design.  Clearly an engineering project of the scale proposed here cannot be completed with only a few paragraphs and some rudimentary graphics.  Rather, the purpose of this blog is to spur discussion and advance the cause of space settlement.  It is hoped that these plans will get people thinking about what comes after the Bigelow stations and how we can move humanity closer to full-fledged space settlements. With that in mind, your constructive comments are welcomed.

This is a concept, not a final design. It is intended to spur discussion and further the development of more advanced space stations.

Taking a break, considering a mini CELSS ‘experiment’

I just read the Orbital Space Settlement Tasks page on Al Globus’ website. Very interesting reading. I think I might try this mini Closed Ecological Life Support System ‘experiment’:

Do research into closed ecological life support systems by placing small amounts of soil, plants, and microbes in sealed jars. See how long they can survive with just sunlight coming in.

Ok so a quick google search of “closed jar terrariums” shows that this is actually pretty common. This person has a pretty cool site on how to make them using moss. Looks likeactivated carbon is an essential ingredient – possibly to filter out contaminants?

Closed jar moss terrariums. Credit: http://www.instructables.com/file/FKB3U7HHH2VNBLP
Closed jar moss terrariums. Credit: http://www.instructables.com/file/FKB3U7HHH2VNBLP

How nice would it be to be able to walk barefoot over soft moss and pick little flowers growing in greenhouses in the next generation of space stations?


The solution to keeping the lights on in space.

The previous post described how difficult it will be to power the next generation of space stations exclusively with solar electric panels.  Other options were investigated including nuclear power, hydrogen fuel cells (like those used on the Space Shuttles), electrodynamic tethers and, finally, concentrating solar power or ‘CSP.’

In short, a space station proposal being drawn up right now will use 88 concentrating solar power plants of a type similar to the Suncatcher CSP designed by Stirling Energy Systems in the last decade.

Stirling-Energy-Suncatcher-e1285022946537Each of these power plants will generate 25kW for a total of 2,200 kW.  Each  power plant will weigh around 200 kilograms, not counting the reflective mirrors and support structure.  While the power plants will be launched up from Earth, the reflective mirrors and support structure will manufactured in space from in-situ resources.  This is because they will be made of iron and/or aluminum, contain no moving parts and thus should be relatively simple to make on orbit.

This technology is an ideal solution.  While it will require research to perfect (unlike solar electric panels), and probably lots of maintenance once installed, it offers high power output while having relatively low mass, low volume and low complexity.  While not as powerful as nuclear energy, it is not nearly as controversial and thus easier to get approval to launch into orbit.  It is tailor-made for the next generation of space stations.

The Big Five Characteristics

In previous posts the rationale for space settlement was discussed, as well as how the next generation of space stations can attract people in order to be successful.  This post will discuss the characteristics the next generation of space stations must have in order to advance the causes of space settlement and developing a human-centric LEO economy.

The next generation of space stations must:

  1. Be truly permanent
  2. Rotate to provide artificial gravity
  3. Support a larger population
  4. Produce
  5. Be flexible

Let’s take these one by one:

1. Be truly permanent – the next generation of space stations, or next gen, must be designed to be repaired and upgraded in space.  Components should be modular and subsystems should be able to be swapped out and upgraded as needs require.  Structural members should be composed of materials that can be repaired using in-space resources.  In short, the next gen should be thought of less as a vessel with a finite life but more like a settlement or a building that can be repaired, upgraded and changed over time.

2. Rotate to provide artificial gravity – the next gen of space stations must have gravity in order to provide a comfortable quality of life and thus persuade the average person to live in space.  While artificial gravity has been a mainstay of science fiction for decades, and is assumed to be possible using centripedal acceleration via rotating structures in space, it has never been attempted in real life.  The next gen must incorporate some level of artificial gravity in order to prove the concept so it can be refined for later, full-scale space settlements like Kalpana One.

3. Support a larger population – in keeping with the idea that the next gen of space stations are settlements, and not vessels, we ought to call the people living, visiting and working there a ‘population’ as opposed to a ‘crew.’  Furthermore, the next gen must be able to support a larger population in order to prove that a large number of people can live and thrive in space.  The challenges and opportunities of having dozens of people in space are far greater than having less than ten people in ISS.  Thus, the next generation of space stations should be designed to support a population of at least 100 people.

The next generation space station will support a crew population of at least 100 people.

4. Produce – the next gen of space stations must demonstrate, on a commercial-scale, the ability to extract useful products from raw materials obtained in space, refine those products into salable goods or services and then assemble them into other, more complex items.  For instance, extracting water from captured comets (perhaps delivered to the station by Planetary Resources) and manufacturing liquid oxygen to refuel a government mission to Mars. Or, later on, extracting silicon from lunar regolith (perhaps delivered by Liftport via a lunar space elevator) to produce solar panels to install into a satellite that is docked with the station. Whatever the method, it will be necessary to show that space manufacturing is feasible to advance the cause of space settlement.  It will be necessary to use local materials to construct full-scale space settlements because the tonnage required is too high to boost everything up from Earth. The nextgen must prove that local materials can be refined into usable goods, and it must do so at a profit in order to be sustainable.

5. Be flexible – finally, the next gen of space stations must be able to accommodate a variety of different users and uses within the same facility (as much as is feasible).  Again, in keeping with the idea that this is settlement, and not a single-use vessel, it must be able to accommodate recreation, manufacturing, military, R&D, etc. And, it must be flexible enough to be rearranged internally to accommodate as-yet-unforeseen users and needs.