Tag Archives: Bigelow

Calling all (Space Station) Architects!

There is a problem with space exploration. Despite the fact that lots of new rockets are being built, almost no one is thinking about the next generation of space stations.  Where will all those rockets go once the International Space Station (ISS) is decommissioned in 2028?  Considering that the ISS took at least thirteen years to design before the first components were built (1985 to 1998), we should be laying the groundwork for it’s successor now.

Many people assume that Bigelow Aerospace will replace the ISS with a commercial space station.  That might be true, but what if it doesn’t happen?  What if funding dries up or the owner of the company changes his mind?  It’s imprudent to put all of our space station eggs in one basket.

The proposed Bigelow Station. Nice, but it would be nice to have a back-up plan too. Credit: Bigelow Aerospace
The proposed Bigelow Station. Nice, but it would be nice to have a back-up plan too. Credit: Bigelow Aerospace

Of further concern is the fact that any conceivable follow-on station to the ISS (including Bigelow stations) will not be very different from today’s space station. They won’t incorporate major leaps in technology. Specifically, they will not rotate to provide artificial gravity, they will not use asteroidal or lunar resources as raw material to produce a portion of their expendable supplies (e.g. oxygen, water or radiation shielding) and they won’t be much bigger than existing stations.  In short, they won’t provide a stepping stone to true ‘towns in space.’

 The current lack of planning and innovation in space station design will greatly impede the shared goal of the space community: a permanent, self-sustaining, self-replicable human presence in outer space.

We need to start planning now for the next generation of space stations.

So what do we do? We need to start planning now! Specifically, a group of like-minded technically savvy individuals should get together to create a space station architecture that:

  1. Can accomodate an order of magnitude increase in the size of crews over current designs.  In other words, dozens or hundreds of people can stay there instead of just a handful of elite astronauts.
  2. Is modular, flexible, upgrade-able and interchangeable to keep costs down and interoperability high.
  3. Is ‘spinnable’ i.e. has components that can be manipulated to generate varying levels of artificial gravity.
  4. Has components small enough and light enough to fit on the cheapest of launchers, especially the Space X rocket family.
  5. Generates way more electricity than current space station infrastructure.
  6. Incorporates in-situ resource utilization i.e. derives some of its supplies from asteroids or lunar raw materials.
  7. Is cheap enough to get started without government assistance using not for profit or incremental revenue sources.

Over the next few months This Orbital Life will attempt to start this project. Anyone interested in joining us should send us an email or post a comment! Ad astra!


 

 

Basic specifications for Uptown

The following post describes the basic specifications of the “Uptown” component of the next generation of space stations.

12.1.13 Final Version NGSSUptown:

  • is a ring 148 meters in diameter and 47.8 meters in depth (from “zero-gee viewing window” to tip of rear-most radiator panel).
  • rotates at two revolutions per minute, generating one-third Earth gravity and 15.5 meters/sec (approximately 34mph) angular velocity along the rim.
  • has a total internal pressurized volume of 18,360 cubic meters.
  • generates 2.2 megawatts of baseline electrical power.
  • can accomodate 100 people in 11 residence quarters:
    • 4 “tourist” quarters with a capacity for 4 tourists each, for a total of 16 people.
    • 7 “non-tourist” quarters with a capacity of 12 non-tourists each, for a total of 84 people.
  • provides 4,290 cubic meters of pressurized volume available for private non-residential use and 10,440 cubic meters of shared non-residential pressurized volume.
  • provides 1,200 cubic meters of shared zero-gee pressurized volume, including a 25 meter wide viewing window at the center of the station.
  • has a ‘dry’ or ‘vacant’ mass of 2,548,000 kilograms. ‘Vacant mass’ is the mass of the station not counting internal furnishings and non life-support related equipment and materials.
  • is estimated to cost $60,000,000,000 to build, not including launch costs.
  • will cost $6,489,756,000 to launch to low earth orbit, assuming a launch cost of $2,547 per kilogram – the proposed cost-per-kilogram to orbit for the Falcon Heavy.
  • will require at least 620,500 kilograms of water per year for life support purposes. Assuming 90% recycling (ISS currently recycles 93%), 62,050 kg of water per year required for life support.

Final Color Version NGSS

  • is composed of:
    • 28 BA330-like modules (green), each 9.5 meters in length and 6.7 meters in diameter and each with an internal pressurized volume of 330 cubic meters. Each masses 20,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 24 custom-made ‘corridor’ modules (pink), each 19.3179 meters in length on the exterior side and 5 meters in width on the rimward side, each with a ‘foyer’ 6.7 meters long and 2 meters in width on the rimward side. Internal                 pressurized volume for each corridor is 330 cubic meters. Each masses 30,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $200 million.

Final Color Version Shadowside NGSS

    • 24 ‘spine’ trusses (blue), each 18.9274 meters in length on the rimward facing side. Unpressurized but very high strength. ‘Corridor’ segments are connected to this spine, as well as the support trusses for the power plants and radiators. It is designed to transmit rotational forces while the station is under construction or being upgraded. Each masses 10,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 88 Suncatcher-like concentrating solar power plants (yellow) each occupying a volume 6.9401 meters in diameter and 5 meters in depth. The Suncatchers will be parabolic, unlike the cylindrical shape shown in the graphic (cylinders are easier to sketch).  Each Suncatcher will generate 25 KW baseline power for a total of 2,200 KW produced while the station is facing the Sun.  This energy will charge batteries distributed throughout the corridor and BA330s modules for use when the station is transiting the nightside of the Earth. Each Suncatcher masses 1,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 90 radiators (brown), each 125 square meters in size, each able to dissipate 149 KW of energy for a total dissipation capacity of 13,140 KW. Each masses 10,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
Unit Mass (kg) per unit Cost ($millions) per unit # of units total mass (kg) total cost of materials ($millions)
“BA330” 20,000 100 28 560,000 2800
“Corridor” 30,000 200 24 720,000 4800
“Spine truss” 10,000 100 24 240,000 2400
“Power plant” 1,000 100 88 88,000 8800
“Radiator” 10,000 100 90 900,000 9000
“Zero gee” 40,000 200 1 40,000 200
Total 2,548,000 28000
Note: All figures are estimates. Materials cost is more than doubled to $60B to account for R&D and operations costs.

Get the model on Sketchup and check it out for yourself.  Specs on Refinery are coming soon!

The Big Five Characteristics

In previous posts the rationale for space settlement was discussed, as well as how the next generation of space stations can attract people in order to be successful.  This post will discuss the characteristics the next generation of space stations must have in order to advance the causes of space settlement and developing a human-centric LEO economy.

The next generation of space stations must:

  1. Be truly permanent
  2. Rotate to provide artificial gravity
  3. Support a larger population
  4. Produce
  5. Be flexible

Let’s take these one by one:

1. Be truly permanent – the next generation of space stations, or next gen, must be designed to be repaired and upgraded in space.  Components should be modular and subsystems should be able to be swapped out and upgraded as needs require.  Structural members should be composed of materials that can be repaired using in-space resources.  In short, the next gen should be thought of less as a vessel with a finite life but more like a settlement or a building that can be repaired, upgraded and changed over time.

2. Rotate to provide artificial gravity – the next gen of space stations must have gravity in order to provide a comfortable quality of life and thus persuade the average person to live in space.  While artificial gravity has been a mainstay of science fiction for decades, and is assumed to be possible using centripedal acceleration via rotating structures in space, it has never been attempted in real life.  The next gen must incorporate some level of artificial gravity in order to prove the concept so it can be refined for later, full-scale space settlements like Kalpana One.

3. Support a larger population – in keeping with the idea that the next gen of space stations are settlements, and not vessels, we ought to call the people living, visiting and working there a ‘population’ as opposed to a ‘crew.’  Furthermore, the next gen must be able to support a larger population in order to prove that a large number of people can live and thrive in space.  The challenges and opportunities of having dozens of people in space are far greater than having less than ten people in ISS.  Thus, the next generation of space stations should be designed to support a population of at least 100 people.

The next generation space station will support a crew population of at least 100 people.

4. Produce – the next gen of space stations must demonstrate, on a commercial-scale, the ability to extract useful products from raw materials obtained in space, refine those products into salable goods or services and then assemble them into other, more complex items.  For instance, extracting water from captured comets (perhaps delivered to the station by Planetary Resources) and manufacturing liquid oxygen to refuel a government mission to Mars. Or, later on, extracting silicon from lunar regolith (perhaps delivered by Liftport via a lunar space elevator) to produce solar panels to install into a satellite that is docked with the station. Whatever the method, it will be necessary to show that space manufacturing is feasible to advance the cause of space settlement.  It will be necessary to use local materials to construct full-scale space settlements because the tonnage required is too high to boost everything up from Earth. The nextgen must prove that local materials can be refined into usable goods, and it must do so at a profit in order to be sustainable.

5. Be flexible – finally, the next gen of space stations must be able to accommodate a variety of different users and uses within the same facility (as much as is feasible).  Again, in keeping with the idea that this is settlement, and not a single-use vessel, it must be able to accommodate recreation, manufacturing, military, R&D, etc. And, it must be flexible enough to be rearranged internally to accommodate as-yet-unforeseen users and needs.