Tag Archives: Bigelow Aerospace

Space Station for Rent

The International Space Station, also known as the ISS, will be retired in 2028.  By that time the oldest parts of the station will be thirty years old and dangerously deteriorated in the harsh environment of space.  Having a space station is essential to continue research for the upcoming asteroid mission and an eventual Mars landing.  But all of those things won’t get done before the ISS falls apart in 2028.  So if we’re going to Mars, we need a replacement for the ISS.

So, no problem, you say. Let’s just build another ISS! Well the first one cost about $100 billion and had the Space Shuttle to help build it.  We don’t have the Space Shuttle anymore and, while we learned a lot from ISS, no one really wants to spend $100 billion doing something we’ve already done. Especially if we’d rather spend most of our time and money getting to Mars.

Luckily, there is an alternative.  When the Space Shuttle was cancelled, the U.S. still needed a way to get astronauts and their stuff to and from the space station.  Rather than building a new Space Shuttle (or relying entirely on Russian rockets), NASA asked the private sector to find a solution. Rather than spending a ton of time and money doing something they’ve already done (build a rocket), they outsourced the project to the commercial sector.  They called it Commercial Cargo and Crew.

And it worked! Cargo is now regularly delivered to the International Space Station on rockets that were developed entirely by the private sector. NASA pays only for the transportation services, not the maintenance costs.  It’s sort of like a trucking company, but in space.  Next year private companies will begin testing crewed capsules in order to send astronauts up to the station.  All this costs way less than the Space Shuttle ever did.

So why not apply the same method to replacing the space station? There are a handful of companies who already have the capability to build commercial space stations.  NASA should work with these firms now to define its needs and, if met, commit the funds currently used for ISS maintenance (over $3 billion in 2015) to pay for renting out space in the new commercial stations.

NASA's new landlords
Mr. Roper they ain’t…

In fact, if ‘Commercial Station’ is as successful as Commercial Cargo and Crew were, there should be significant funding left over to transfer to the primary mission of NASA: getting astronauts on Mars.  It will do this while continuing to provide a sustainable human outpost to support that mission.

Just as important, it will show that commercial vendors can operate safely and profitably in orbit.  It will open space for other commercial ventures like space tourism, manufacturing, research and media.  By promoting Commercial Station, NASA could jumpstart the orbital economy.

Click on the title of the post to comment.


 

Basic specifications of Refinery

Refinery will demonstrate that useful products can be manufactured on an industrial scale from asteroidal and lunar raw materials.  Manufacturing using ‘in-situ’ raw materials is necessary in order to expand the human-centric LEO economy and eventually construct full-fledged space settlements.  It is infeasible to launch from Earth the millions of tons necessary to build a large space settlement – this material must be obtained from sources already above Earth’s gravity well e.g. the Moon and asteroids.

To start, some basic statistics are described.  See below for a more detailed discussion.

GEOindustrial 12.11.13 v2 labels 3
Sunward-facing side of Refinery

Refinery:

  • Is 100.96 meters long along its longest axis.
  • will be located in geosynchronous orbit (GEO).
  • Will produce 5962 kilograms of water per day, based upon the assumptions described below.
  • Will produce 271 kilograms of iron per day, based upon the assumptions described below.
  • Does not generate artificial gravity.  All operations aboard Refinery occur in zero-gee.
  • Is teleoperated by controllers on Earth and in Uptown.
  • Contains 2,313 cubic meters of sealed interior industrial space. Contains 330 cubic meters of pressurized habitable space intended for short visits by human maintenance crews.
  • Is estimated to generate 531 kilowatts of baseload electric power.
  • Contains three solar ovens, each focusing 154.36 kilowatts per second of solar thermal energy into a crucible one cubic meter in size (assuming average solar irradiance of 1.366 kw per square meter per second in geosynchronous orbit).
  • Can store 300 cubic meters/300,000 kilograms of water.  Can store 4516 cubic meters of finished industrial products.  Can store up to 6283 cubic meters of raw material.
  • Is estimated to mass 320,000 kilograms.
  • Is estimated to cost $4,150,000,000 to build and $2,037,440,000 to launch (using the Falcon Heavy at $6,367/kg to GTO)

Estimated Cost and Mass of Refinery

Unit Mass (kg) per unit Cost ($millions) per unit # of units total mass (kg) total cost of materials ($millions)
“BA330″ 20000 100 8 160,000 800
“Node” 10000 100 6 60,000 600
“Solar oven” 10000 100 3 30,000 300
“Power plant” 1000 100 20 20,000 2000
“Raw material bunker” 20000 50 1 20,000 50
“3D printer assembly bay” 10000 200 1 10,000 200
“Solar panels” 10000 100 2 20,000 200
Total 320,000 4150
GEOindustrial 12.11.13 v2 labels 2
Shadow side of Refinery – 1 of 2
GEOindustrial 12.11.13 labels 1
Shadow side of Refinery – 2 of 2

However, industrial scale manufacturing has never been done in space.  Therefore planning for Refinery requires a myriad of compromises and assumptions.

Compromises
–          In order to keep things simple, only water and iron will be produced at this first facility.  The iron will be printed into structural components using 3D printers.  These structural components will be used to repair and upgrade Uptown.  The water will be transported to Uptown as well, for drinking, cooking and washing and for conversion into oxygen and hydrogen using electrolysis machines.
–          To reduce complexity and save money, Refinery will be ‘lightly’ crewed without a permanent human presence aboard: manufacturing operations will be teleoperated from Earth and Uptown.  Refinery will have a single BA330 habitat module for occasional visits from maintenance crews.
–          For ease of design and construction, much of the chassis is composed of ‘off-the-shelf’ components like BA330s, Suncatcher CSPs, ISS-like solar panels and radiators.  On the other hand, much of the station will be custom-designed and built: the solar ovens, the connecting nodes, the raw material bunker and the 3D printer assembly bay.  Additionally, all of the equipment inside will be custom-designed and -built. Solar electric panels are included for back up power since maintenance crews will not be on-call 24/7 to maintain the Suncatchers, which are expected to need a lot of upkeep.
–          Refinery will be small, located in geosynchronous orbit and will not rotate to produce artificial gravity.  Because space manufacturing is unprecedented, it is prudent to start with a smaller, simpler facility that does not include the added complexity of generating artificial gravity.  However, operating in zero-gee presents other challenges: it will require specialized, custom-built equipment inside the facility to move materials without the aid of gravity.  It is believed that rotating Refinery will introduce engineering challenges that will distract from the primary purpose of the facility: to convert in-situ raw materials into useful goods.  Additionally, it is thought that expanding Refinery to a size that will justify the expense and complexity of artificial gravity will leave it too large and with too much excess capacity.  It is unclear today how much raw material can be delivered to the station within a given period of time.  Furthermore, simply incorporating Refinery back into the rotating structure of Uptown will force Uptown to move from its prime location in LEO up to GEO, far from the customers and markets of Earth.  Finally, there may be value in and of itself to exploring and perfecting zero-gee manufacturing.  In short, Refinery’s size, location and lack of gravity represent a series of trade-offs, all of which result in a facility that will best fulfill the goal of perfecting industrial scale space manufacturing using in-situ resources.

Assumptions
–          As mentioned above, Refinery will be located in geosynchronous orbit, separate from Uptown (which is located in low earth orbit).  In addition to the reason mentioned above, Refinery must be in GEO for its solar ovens to perform more efficiently in the constant sunlight of GEO vs. the intermittent sunlight of LEO.
–         Refinery assumes a raw material mix high in ice, nickel, iron and aluminum (e.g. dead comets and near earth asteroids) will be commercially available.  By the time Refinery is built, it will hopefully be possible to ‘order’ and have delivered to geosynchronous orbit intact asteroids up to 20 meters in diameter.  Planetary Resources and NASA are already working on the technology to do something like this.
–           Additional assumptions used to calculate the performance of Refinery:

Launch cost per kg to Uptown $2542 *
Cost of raw material per kg delivered to Uptown $2000
% of 1 kg of raw material that is water (ice) 20%
% of 1 kg raw material that is iron 10%
density of raw material 2710 kg/m3 **
number of hours operating per day 22
percent of raw material lost to inefficiencies 10%
*using Falcon Heavy
**http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_asteroid_physical_characteristics#Density

At this point it is important to remember that the entire Bridging the Gap series of posts is a thought experiment – a speculative exercise intended to get one thinking about how to bridge the gap between the current generation of space stations and full fledged space settlements.  Refinery is not intended to be a final design. A large number of assumptions are inherent in any thought exercise.  That being said, the assumptions made here are grounded in the best available facts and are reasonably conservative, considering the knowledge available to the author at the time of writing. Your constructive feedback is welcomed.

Basic specifications for Uptown

The following post describes the basic specifications of the “Uptown” component of the next generation of space stations.

12.1.13 Final Version NGSSUptown:

  • is a ring 148 meters in diameter and 47.8 meters in depth (from “zero-gee viewing window” to tip of rear-most radiator panel).
  • rotates at two revolutions per minute, generating one-third Earth gravity and 15.5 meters/sec (approximately 34mph) angular velocity along the rim.
  • has a total internal pressurized volume of 18,360 cubic meters.
  • generates 2.2 megawatts of baseline electrical power.
  • can accomodate 100 people in 11 residence quarters:
    • 4 “tourist” quarters with a capacity for 4 tourists each, for a total of 16 people.
    • 7 “non-tourist” quarters with a capacity of 12 non-tourists each, for a total of 84 people.
  • provides 4,290 cubic meters of pressurized volume available for private non-residential use and 10,440 cubic meters of shared non-residential pressurized volume.
  • provides 1,200 cubic meters of shared zero-gee pressurized volume, including a 25 meter wide viewing window at the center of the station.
  • has a ‘dry’ or ‘vacant’ mass of 2,548,000 kilograms. ‘Vacant mass’ is the mass of the station not counting internal furnishings and non life-support related equipment and materials.
  • is estimated to cost $60,000,000,000 to build, not including launch costs.
  • will cost $6,489,756,000 to launch to low earth orbit, assuming a launch cost of $2,547 per kilogram – the proposed cost-per-kilogram to orbit for the Falcon Heavy.
  • will require at least 620,500 kilograms of water per year for life support purposes. Assuming 90% recycling (ISS currently recycles 93%), 62,050 kg of water per year required for life support.

Final Color Version NGSS

  • is composed of:
    • 28 BA330-like modules (green), each 9.5 meters in length and 6.7 meters in diameter and each with an internal pressurized volume of 330 cubic meters. Each masses 20,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 24 custom-made ‘corridor’ modules (pink), each 19.3179 meters in length on the exterior side and 5 meters in width on the rimward side, each with a ‘foyer’ 6.7 meters long and 2 meters in width on the rimward side. Internal                 pressurized volume for each corridor is 330 cubic meters. Each masses 30,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $200 million.

Final Color Version Shadowside NGSS

    • 24 ‘spine’ trusses (blue), each 18.9274 meters in length on the rimward facing side. Unpressurized but very high strength. ‘Corridor’ segments are connected to this spine, as well as the support trusses for the power plants and radiators. It is designed to transmit rotational forces while the station is under construction or being upgraded. Each masses 10,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 88 Suncatcher-like concentrating solar power plants (yellow) each occupying a volume 6.9401 meters in diameter and 5 meters in depth. The Suncatchers will be parabolic, unlike the cylindrical shape shown in the graphic (cylinders are easier to sketch).  Each Suncatcher will generate 25 KW baseline power for a total of 2,200 KW produced while the station is facing the Sun.  This energy will charge batteries distributed throughout the corridor and BA330s modules for use when the station is transiting the nightside of the Earth. Each Suncatcher masses 1,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
    • 90 radiators (brown), each 125 square meters in size, each able to dissipate 149 KW of energy for a total dissipation capacity of 13,140 KW. Each masses 10,000 kilograms and is estimated to cost $100 million.
Unit Mass (kg) per unit Cost ($millions) per unit # of units total mass (kg) total cost of materials ($millions)
“BA330” 20,000 100 28 560,000 2800
“Corridor” 30,000 200 24 720,000 4800
“Spine truss” 10,000 100 24 240,000 2400
“Power plant” 1,000 100 88 88,000 8800
“Radiator” 10,000 100 90 900,000 9000
“Zero gee” 40,000 200 1 40,000 200
Total 2,548,000 28000
Note: All figures are estimates. Materials cost is more than doubled to $60B to account for R&D and operations costs.

Get the model on Sketchup and check it out for yourself.  Specs on Refinery are coming soon!

The Next Generation of Space Stations: A Conceptual Design

As described in previous posts, Marotta Space Research has created a conceptual design for the next generation of space stations.  This conceptual design achieves the strategic goals necessary to bridge the gap between the current crop of space stations and what is needed to build full-fledged space settlements.

The Answer Is...Additional considerations were made when crafting this design:

  • Existing technologies were used to the greatest extent possible.  In fact, the station is essentially a larger and unique configuration of existing technology that will be commercially available in the next ten years (e.g. BA330 modules) or is currently available but needs to be reverse engineered for use in orbit (e.g. Suncatcher CSP power plants).
  • The station is actually two stations:
    • a smaller teleoperated station in geosynchronous orbit that converts in-situ raw materials into water, oxygen, hydrogen, and iron structural components.  This part of the station is tentatively called “Refinery.”
    • a much larger station in low to medium earth orbit hosting the inhabited portions tentatively called “Uptown.”

Refinery requires the constant sunlight of geosynchronous orbit in order to most efficiently convert in-situ materials into finished products.  However, Uptown must be located in a lower orbit close to the customer base and markets of Earth in order to maximize its economic output.  Therefore, separating Refinery from Uptown in different orbits achieves the strategic goals of maximizing both economic output and manufacturing productivity.

NGSS answer graphic

A final note: this is a concept.  This is not a final design.  Much of the work here is speculative and represents an extremely ambitious proposal.  In fact, the entire purpose of this series of blog posts is not to create a final space station design.  Clearly an engineering project of the scale proposed here cannot be completed with only a few paragraphs and some rudimentary graphics.  Rather, the purpose of this blog is to spur discussion and advance the cause of space settlement.  It is hoped that these plans will get people thinking about what comes after the Bigelow stations and how we can move humanity closer to full-fledged space settlements. With that in mind, your constructive comments are welcomed.

This is a concept, not a final design. It is intended to spur discussion and further the development of more advanced space stations.

Sneak Preview!

As alluded to in earlier posts, Marotta Space Research is working on a conceptual design for the next generation of space stations. Here is what we have so far:

Sneak preview of a conceptual design for the next generation of space stations.
Sneak preview of a conceptual design for the next generation of space stations.

More to come soon!

The Big Five Characteristics

In previous posts the rationale for space settlement was discussed, as well as how the next generation of space stations can attract people in order to be successful.  This post will discuss the characteristics the next generation of space stations must have in order to advance the causes of space settlement and developing a human-centric LEO economy.

The next generation of space stations must:

  1. Be truly permanent
  2. Rotate to provide artificial gravity
  3. Support a larger population
  4. Produce
  5. Be flexible

Let’s take these one by one:

1. Be truly permanent – the next generation of space stations, or next gen, must be designed to be repaired and upgraded in space.  Components should be modular and subsystems should be able to be swapped out and upgraded as needs require.  Structural members should be composed of materials that can be repaired using in-space resources.  In short, the next gen should be thought of less as a vessel with a finite life but more like a settlement or a building that can be repaired, upgraded and changed over time.

2. Rotate to provide artificial gravity – the next gen of space stations must have gravity in order to provide a comfortable quality of life and thus persuade the average person to live in space.  While artificial gravity has been a mainstay of science fiction for decades, and is assumed to be possible using centripedal acceleration via rotating structures in space, it has never been attempted in real life.  The next gen must incorporate some level of artificial gravity in order to prove the concept so it can be refined for later, full-scale space settlements like Kalpana One.

3. Support a larger population – in keeping with the idea that the next gen of space stations are settlements, and not vessels, we ought to call the people living, visiting and working there a ‘population’ as opposed to a ‘crew.’  Furthermore, the next gen must be able to support a larger population in order to prove that a large number of people can live and thrive in space.  The challenges and opportunities of having dozens of people in space are far greater than having less than ten people in ISS.  Thus, the next generation of space stations should be designed to support a population of at least 100 people.

The next generation space station will support a crew population of at least 100 people.

4. Produce – the next gen of space stations must demonstrate, on a commercial-scale, the ability to extract useful products from raw materials obtained in space, refine those products into salable goods or services and then assemble them into other, more complex items.  For instance, extracting water from captured comets (perhaps delivered to the station by Planetary Resources) and manufacturing liquid oxygen to refuel a government mission to Mars. Or, later on, extracting silicon from lunar regolith (perhaps delivered by Liftport via a lunar space elevator) to produce solar panels to install into a satellite that is docked with the station. Whatever the method, it will be necessary to show that space manufacturing is feasible to advance the cause of space settlement.  It will be necessary to use local materials to construct full-scale space settlements because the tonnage required is too high to boost everything up from Earth. The nextgen must prove that local materials can be refined into usable goods, and it must do so at a profit in order to be sustainable.

5. Be flexible – finally, the next gen of space stations must be able to accommodate a variety of different users and uses within the same facility (as much as is feasible).  Again, in keeping with the idea that this is settlement, and not a single-use vessel, it must be able to accommodate recreation, manufacturing, military, R&D, etc. And, it must be flexible enough to be rearranged internally to accommodate as-yet-unforeseen users and needs.

Why settle space?

The “Bridging the Gap” section of marottaspaceresearch.com will explore how to develop the first truly permanent space station. Currently, humanity has an outpost in space in the form of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS will eventually be decommissioned and deorbited. The outpost most likely to follow the ISS will be based on the Bigelow stations and, to a lesser extent, the tiny Chinese space station. All of these follow-on stations are designed to eventually be decommissioned, just like the ISS. It is time for humanity to start thinking about a truly permanent space settlement, starting with a new generation of space stations.

But why build a new generation of space stations? Why pursue space settlement at all? While the rationale for space settlement is well-established amongst those in the space advocacy community, the majority of people are, at best, confused or ambivalent about why human beings should have a robust presence in space. After all, life on Earth is slowly improving and where it’s not, significant resources are still needed. If Earth-bound civilization is on the right track and more help is needed to accelerate current progress, why divert resources and try something new by extending human civilization into space?

There are several arguments in favor of space settlement, or, more specifically, why we should establish a human-centric economy in low-earth-orbit.:

a human-centric economy in low-earth-orbit (LEO) is a space-based network of settlements, outposts and manufacturing centers that provides goods and services produced in LEO by humans, and machines tended by humans based in LEO, to populations and consumers based on Earth, LEO and beyond.

A human-centric economy in low earth orbit:

  • is necessary to support Beyond Earth Orbit (BEO) exploration and settlement initiatives. A myriad of organizations all have ambitious plans to return to the Moon, colonize Mars, and explore the asteroids. There is even talk of organizing manned missions to explore the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. All of these missions will be challenging. Imagine how much easier they will be with a robust base of operations in low Earth orbit? Rather than having to haul fuel from Earth, these missions can purchase fuel and spare parts from private-sector manufacturing centers in LEO. Should something go wrong, they can escape to medical and trauma centers in LEO, rather than having to brave a fiery reentry in a damaged condition. Settlements based in the human-centric LEO economy will be a congregation point for explorers, colonizers and manufacturers and accelerate the exchange of information between these groups. Imagine how much simpler and easier it may have been for James Cook if a fully-stocked medical and supply center existed in Hawaii in 1730, or for Lewis and Clark if they had a full-fledged general store in the Pacific Northwest in 1800? Imagine how much more they may have learned? A human-centric LEO economy will significantly lower the cost, time and risk of BEO exploration, as well as greatly increase the knowledge gained from these efforts.
  • will produce goods and services that will improve life on Earth. Ubiquitous and more powerful satellite communications, higher-resolution imaging to prevent crime and improve the environment, exotic tourism, uber-luxurious space condo living, zero-gee physical therapy suites, advanced pharmaceuticals, space solar power, cheap raw materials, precious minerals required for high-tech products like electric cars, advanced manufacturing techniques – all of this and more can be provided by the human-centric LEO economy to improve life on Earth.
  • will expand the sphere of human civilization and provide the ideal location to preserve and expand the natural rights of humankind. The isolation and distances in space will allow settlements to experiment with new forms of social organizations. The human centric LEO economy will begin the process of moving human civilization into orbit and beyond.
  • will provide a ‘lifeboat’ should something go wrong on Earth. The proliferation of advanced technology and extremist terrorist groups is increasing the chances for a catastrophic event resulting in millions of deaths. Bioengineered viruses, nuclear weapons and, soon, weapons based on nanotechnology are just some of the risks. Settlements in orbit will provide a “lifeboat” or an “ark” for humanity in a locale separated from the biosphere and potential hazards of Earth. They will also help humanity prepare for and perhaps mitigate against natural disasters like asteroids and climate change.

This is a general overview of why humanity should settle space. But before we can settle space, and before a human-centric LEO economy is established, we must first consider what comes after the ISS and the Bigelow stations. The next post will discuss how we should design the next generation of space stations to further the development of the human-centric LEO economy and the overall goal of space settlement.

Living in space must provide a high quality of life.

The previous post in the “Bridging the Gap” series on Marottaspaceresearch.com discussed the rationale for settling space and establishing a human-centric LEO economy to support space settlement.  In that post, we learned that there is a “gap” in space development plans. We have the ISS, we will soon have the Bigelow stations, but that won’t get us to a full-scale space colony that will enable wide-spread space settlement.  We need to start thinking about what will come after the Bigelow stations in order to ‘set the stage’ for the eventual development of the big space colonies.

Bridging the gap MSR graphic

But this post will discuss a more immediate question: what would persuade the average person to move to a space station in the first place?  Space cannot be settled without people.  And space settlements will be communities of people in space. Communities are established for a reason, and our orbital settlement will be no different.  Resources are expended to establish a settlement and people move into that settlement to escape where they came from, to follow orders or, most likely, to make money and find a better life.  The last reason is the best reason and should guide us when we design our next generation of space stations.  That is, settlements founded by people who want to be there are the most successful and enduring places.  Therefore, the primary purpose of the next major outpost in space must be to demonstrate that humans can live and thrive in space – as opposed to fulfilling strictly governmental or commercial purposes.

Therefore, the primary purpose of the next major outpost in space must be to demonstrate that humans can live comfortably in space.

While it is not yet feasible to build something like Kalpana One or a Bernal Sphere, the next generation of space stations can “bridge the gap” between the ISS/Bigelow stations and these “full-scale” space settlements by demonstrating that life in space can be both financially lucrative as well as pleasantly comfortable.

In short, the next generation of space stations must offer a high quality of life in order to prove that large-scale space settlement is feasible.